Power unit is Joule=Newton*meter. This is a parameter of the weight and the ruler. Any force can be calibrated with weight, any Force unit is Newton. Displacement unit is meter.
Ok, let's go forth. Mesoscopic physics addresses down to nano-scale (cluster). There are concepts of the conductor, dielectric, superconductor and etc. using in mesocopic. Such objects as conductor, dielectric, superconductor and etc. are macroscale objects which are based on the Ohm's law. Ohm's Law has been found experimentally.
Maxwell used differential form of the Ohm's law to set up his first equation of his famous system of equations.
j = sigmaE.
Here j is the vector current density vector, sigma - specific conductance of the conducting medium.
Write down the first equation of the Maxwell's system of equations:
sumj = rotH.
Here, the curl of the vector H is the mathematical operation and makes sense as the multiplication of the electromotive force by the conductivity. As we remember electromotive force is that which tends to cause current strength (force) with different densities in the different media.
Let's clear the physical parameter of those media and show the first Maxwell's equation in one of the multiple forms printed in the text-books.
jcon+jdiel+jvac = rotH.
Here "con"-index is conducting matter, "diel"-index is the ideal non-conducting matter, "vac"-index is the ideal medium where there is no matter in any of forms. The absolute value of the current strength density vector has unit [Ampere/meter2]=[Coulomb/(sec*m2)].
Obviously, if the concept of the current strength density (j) for a medium is used, the free charge carriers must be in the medium. Else the Coulomb unit is unsuitable.
Both Maxwell's ideal dielectric and especially Maxwell's ideal vacuum cannot have, by definition, free charge carriers. Maxwell called jvac and jdiel=(в€‚D/в€‚t) as fictitious current density.
Here electric induction is D=epsilon epsilon0Р•, where epsilon is relative dielectric permittivity of the medium and epsilon0 is the electric permittivity.
When Maxwell formulated his famous system of equations on the basis of the experiments by Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Ohm and Faraday, he (Maxwell) warned repeatedly his followers. Maxwell said that the unit of the vector of the current density has physical sense only in conducting media. Such conducting media must contain electric fluid (or Faraday's discrete charges). The vectors of current density are fictitious in the media (dielectric and vacuum) without free charge carriers. Maxwell warned that there are not a formula which can be deduced from Maxwell's system of equations. There are not a formula which can be tested by an experiment.
After century Maxwell's warnings were quite correct because multiple working formulas in electric technics, radio technics, electronics, etc. were being obtained by experiments or oversimplified assumptions while using Maxwell's system of equations with fictitious values.
Even the classical formula of the charge-to-electron mass ratio contains resistance of the vacuum diode R, which is connected in the experimental Ohm's law with voltage drop U across cathode-anode of the vacuum diode.
Where e is the electron charge, m is electron mass in the vacuum, alpha is constant. Thus, even the fundamental (e/m) ratio is not deduced from the Maxwell's system of equations. The fundamental (e/m) ratio is empirical formula which uses parameters obtained with the help of empirical Ohm's law.
When J.Bednorz and K.MГјller were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize it was become clear that superconductivity in multi-compound ceramics at temperatures higher that the liquid helium cannot be analysed with the help of Ohm's law.
High-temperature superconductivity (high-Tc) in the ceramic ring is reported to be due the impulse of the external electromotive force, which is applied to the coil of the high-Tc ring. The existing of the high-Tc enables the materials to levitate with no time limit above horizontally laid high-Tc ring. When external impulse source of EMF is switch off of the coil of the high-Tc ring, there is no any inner electromotive force, that is epsilon =0. Zero electrical resistance of the high-Tc ring would be both its internal resistance (r) and its external load (R), that is R+r=0. While high-Tc ring is closed electrical circuit, let's apply Ohm's law on closed loop, that this is I=epsilon/(R+r). There is I=0/0 in such case.
Obviously, if macroscopic concepts such as electromotive force, resistance and current strength (joined by Ohm's law) are applied on closed circuit of high-Tc ring, then we get physical absurd. We have obtained that interaction between object (ferromagnetic) and "electricity" (impulse of EMF on ceramic high-Tc ring) are seen by the naked eye. We have obtained that "mechanical" experiment can help to calculate the real force of interaction between ferromagnetic and high-Tc ring. But we have obtained that if someone applies the classical secondary and tertiary values such as I, epsilon , R and r, then we get physical absurd. Therefore, it is inadmissible to use macroscopic approach both to high-Tc phenomenon which is manifested itself as mesoscopic scale clusters in the macroscopic ring and to quantum (microscopic scale) objects.
Ask ourselves what is wave function ОЁ? Wave function is the statistical function of probability distribution to find quantum object within some point of the space, which has some quantum parameters. Wave function is the statistical concept. Wave function is the irrational concept because formulas containing wave function has irrational number such as pi, e, irrational concepts such as d, partial derivative or integral. Irrational, nonintegral and approximate results are produced with the help of formulas containing wave function.
As we can see, it is insurmountable difficulties to apply macro-concepts to micro-scale. Let's go forth. Bit is a dual information about an object or an event. "0" means that an object or an event are irrational; "1" means that an object or an event are rational. What information concept does perform the information about image (pattern)?