Bravo!!... .as a thought-provoking examination of the foundational instability underlying Science and Religion, it throws open the door for a paradigm to shift.
In that science has not identified "... the cause or source of universal energy and religion cannot identify the cause and source of godly omnipotence...." the formalisms of Science and Religion are not derived from a fundamental Fact, and to reason from the general to the specific, is akin to verifying the form of a mega term equation from the result.
An "... inability to ascertain causality beyond their respective postulates that energy and Godly omnipotence are sources of all existence." necessitates a conceptual reassessment of "energy" and "God".
IF "universal energy" is made referent to a composite of Spaceless-Timeless Energy and Space-Time Energy, AND "cause" and "source" are only applicable to conceptualization of Space-Time Energy... i.e. as spatial-temporal logic operatives, "cause" and "source" are NOT applicable to a Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain... any rationale for Science or Religion, as a consequence of inability to conceptualize an "... unknowable with bearing upon the observable and measurable...", to retard investigation of Space-Time Energy emergence from "formless energy, is eliminated.
IF science acknowledges that "the source and cause of formless energy" is unknowable from within the Space -Time Logic Domain it does not necessarily result "... in blind faith in God's power and purpose to justify existence".
To acknowledge the "unknowable", as a Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain, and differentiate it from the "knowable", as a Space-Time Logic Domain, mitigates the terminology conundrums that an "unknowable" places on investigation of "cause" and "source" of Space-Time Energy, utilizing Space-Time Logic Domain operators.
An initial state reduction process that differentiates a Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain from a Space-Time Logic Domain facilitates an option for a Fact based distinction between "physical" and "metaphysical", or a Fact based unification of "physical" and "metaphysical".
IF physical is differentiated from metaphysical... i.e. physical being within the Space-Time Logic Domain, and metaphysical being operatives of the Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain, THEN metaphysical processes can only interact with Space-Time as a Spaceless-Timeless Energy injection mechanism.
IF physical and metaphysical are unified by the conceptual reduction of measurement unit, THEN all prior processes presumed metaphysical can be conceptually perceived as having physical measurement in theoretical terms of QI as the minimum/indivisible quanta of space, Q-Tick as the minimum/indivisible source pulse rate, and QE as the minimum/indivisible quanta of Energy.
In that 'Infinity" and "eternity are not logical operators in a Spaceless-Timeless logic domain... i.e. "infinity" implies a spatial differentiation and "eternity" implies a temporal differential... it does not prohibit Spaceless-Timeless Energy, as causal of Space-Time Energy.
Within a Space-Time Energy Logic Domain, "infinity" is merely an implicit symbol/icon of the existence of a Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain and man's inability to process Spaceless-Timeless Logics... i.e. it is not a logic operator and can not argue... and one need not be constrained in exploring the possible mechanism by which Spaceless-Timeless Energy is resolved as Space-time... i.e. the fundamentals of Space-Time emergence.
IF "thought" as choreograhies of QE, THEN "thought" occupies Space AND "Infinite thought" implies space... i.e. is a symbol/icon, as is "infinite space" or "infinite time", not a scientific method compliant logic operator.
Science "...might progress more readily if it accepts that there might be an unknowable with bearing upon the observable and measurable and factor that into scientific inquiry."
IF one's model of the universe is inclusive of a Spaceless-Timeless Energy Domain as an objectifiable entity, Space-Time has a source of substance... i.e. a fundamental Fact from which to abstract substance as spatially defined minimum/indivisible quanta... but to perceive the effect of an "unknowable" upon Space-Time requires a conceptual lens.
ILLUSTRATION REF: (http://www.uqsmatrixmechanix.com/UQSMarcelMLTD.jpg)
Given a source, to develop a "coherent conception of reality that does justice to the full content of quantum theory" as discussed in the 2023 FQXi Essay “Future Science, Future Scientist: Reconnecting with the Reflective and Contemplative Modes of Being” (https://s3.amazonaws.com/fqxi.data/data/essay-contest-files/16/essay_id_2322.pdf,) requires objectification of the fundamental elements of emergence... i.e. momentum mechanism, unit of substance, and a distribution structure/intelligence... within a non-pertUrbative analysis environment.
Although my 2023FQXi Essay: "Digital Science: Emergence of Quantum Consciousness" (http://uqsmatrixmechanix.com/2023FQXiEssay4pdfconv.php) was intended as a demonstration of how a non-perturbative analysis structure would change science, the demonstration objectified a momentum mechanism as a single point pulse sourced emission of substance, as spatially defined minimum/indivisible quanta of Energy (QE), which inherently resolves all forces as derived of a single force, and consequently FQXi rejected my essay as being an ""alternative ""theory of everything"", not an essay about how science could be different"".
In that "... the origin of energy and the cause of, or reason for its initial transformation into observable effect and matter are beyond the ability of the human condition to ascertain, and beyond any instrument's ability to do so that humans have so far invented." one can make "... an argument for a primordial force variably named energy or God ".
However, IF Space-Time Energy is a substance, that derives momentum from a pulse sourced emission that converts Spaceless-Timeless Energy into spatially defined minimum/indivisible quanta of Space-Time Energy (QE)... i.e. energy as substance is only perceived as a force as a consequence of a fundamental momentum mechanism... "God" is a process... i.e. not an entity... and the formalisms of Quantum Theory would benefit from incorporating a fundamental momentum mechanism.
Spontaneous Harmonious Resolve (SHR) of distribution of spatially defined minimum/indivisible quanta of potential momentum (QE), wihin minimum/indivisible units of space (QI), throughout the.entire universe on every Q-Tick of a pulsed momentum mechanism, necessitates an emerging intelligent network... i.e. logic inferred from emergence of a networked intelligence must resolve QE/QI distribution throughout the entire Space-Time Energy component of the universe,, to configure QE/QI of the NEXT TICK.
In that as you suggest, ".. The search for causality, and curiosity in general, might be a component of the drive for survival." then "... pursuing causality free of the constraint that every postulate must ultimately be verified before substantially advancing theory." is certainly justifiable.
Although the scientific method may imply that all hypotheses be measurable and verifiable before extrapolating from those hypotheses, and measurement is typically quantified in phenomenal units... e.g. ev as an event effect... or in geometry defined spatial units... i.e. as facilitated by observable resolve of spatial differentiation, the scientific method also tolerates theoretical units... e.g. Planck's length as a conceptualized spatial differentiation... and as you point out, "Science accepts theories about that which is not directly observable and measurable based on their effect on that which is observable and measurable."
Although I agree that "... extrapolating from the unverified that was inferred by the observable and measurable " can facilitate accomplishment, in that science does not incorporate a theoretical unit of space, time, or energy as derived from a Space-Time Energy emergence process, within a non-perturbative analysis environment, "significant advances" do not necessarily verify validity of the inference at QE scale.
An "... ultimate power underlying all existence that science now calls energy..." and measures as phenomenal energy (PHE), without resolve of fundamental process, warrants no greater confidence than postulates of spirit, as promoted by indoctrinated religion.
"Physics defines energy as ‘the quantitative property that is transferred to a body or to a physical system, recognizable in the performance of work and in the form of heat and light.’ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy) "... i.e. an event effect as PHE, not a spatially defined unit of substance... and Einstein Physics asserts that "energy cannot be created or destroyed ".
In that a temporal differentiation of "begin" and/or "end" do not apply to a Spaceless-Timeless Logic Domain, the Spaceless-Timeless Energy component of the universe must continually express itself as Space-Time, thus from the perspective of this Space-Time Logic Domain observer, Spaceless-Timeless Energy is creating, has always been creating, and will always be creating, the Space-Time Energy Domain... i.e. energy as spatially defined minimum/indivisible quanta (QE), being pulse sourced into the field is the most fundamental causality of the Space-Time Energy Domain... and its distribution is being Spontaneously Harmoniously Resolved (SHR) by an emerging networked intelligence... i.e. the Cosmic Consciousness.
In that cosmic intelligence is accessible to the individual human logic processor, utilizing the evolving logic operatives of an emerging Space-Time Logic Domain, science can promote the well-being of the species.
ILLUSTRATED REF: "Digital Science: Emergence of Quantum Consciousness" (http://uqsmatrixmechanix.com/2023FQXiEssay4pdfconv.php)
Thank you for the much needed input from the Philosophy of Physics perspective.