Peter CM Hahn
In accordance with Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter I have some answers to questions in your essay.
1) Why is gravitational mass and inertial mass equivalent? - While the body is moving with constant velocity relative to an isotropic reference system, the force of gravitation does not prevent the movement of the body moves by inertia. In an isotropic system of reference fluxes of gravitons isotropic and equal on all sides. In this case, the mass as a measure of inertia of a body is not found. If the body slow down or speed up, that is, to change the state of the body under the fluxes of gravitons, there is inertia. If we divide this force of inertia by the acceleration, we obtain the inertial mass. In other situations, there are two bodies, and between them there is a gravitational force. Cause of gravitation - shielding of fluxes of gravitons in these bodies relative to each other. The gravitational force is proportional to the mass of each body, and these are called gravitational mass. That is at the heart of the inertial and gravitational mass is the same - the pressure of fluxes of gravitons. Therefore, the masses can be compared to each other. For details, see Fedosin S.G. Model of Gravitational Interaction in the Concept of Gravitons. // Journal of Vectorial Relativity, March 2009, Vol. 4, No. 1, P.1-24.
2) Why are there two unique (completely different) causes of time dilation? Moving through space causes time to slow down (as described by special relativity); and standing still on the surface of a large chunk of matter causes time to slow down (as described by general relativity). Furthermore, why is the time dilation on the surface of the earth equal to the time dilation of a rocket traveling at speed equal to the earth's escape velocity? Is this pure coincidence? - The main reason for time dilation is the additional energy of clocks. As it was shown in the book: Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. Perm, 2009, 844 pages, Tabl. 21, Pic. 41, Ref. 289. ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0, (§ 5), all terms in Lagrangian give time dilation. See also Fedosin S.G. The Hamiltonian in covariant theory of gravitation. vixra.org, 22 May 2012. So dilation of time depends of motion (kinetic energy), energy in fields potentials (gravitational and electromagnetic), and also energy from fields strengths (gravitational and electromagnetic). Since the gravitational energy of mass on the surface of the earth is equal to kinetic energy at the earth's escape velocity then their time dilation equal each other.
3) Why can't we solve the wave-particle duality conundrum where particles behave like waves and waves behave like particles? The duality of light has had brilliant minds baffled for centuries.- Wave-particle duality is a consequence of internal standing electromagnetic waves in particles. When we recount with the help of Lorentz transformations these waves in the reference frame, where the particles moving, we find complex wave which amplitude have de Broglie wavelength. See Fedosin S.G. Fizika i filosofiia podobiia ot preonov do metagalaktik. Perm' : S.G. Fedosin, 1999, 544 pages. ISBN 5-8131-0012-1. The reason for photon wave-particle duality is other. Every wave quantum (photon) consist of numerous small quanta from the very small charges of substance of electron, if this photon is radiated by the electron in atom. So photon is a particle but the particle is discrete and has wave properties.
4) If particles can be waves and waves can be particles, why does the Pauli exclusion principle apply to fermions but not to bosons? - The Pauli principle is a consequence of electromagnetic interaction of magnetic moments of particles and of electromagnetic induction. When two electrons interact in atom their magnetic moments are opposite, so the pair of such electrons is a bosons with small common magnetic moment. See Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. (§ 14). Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0.
5) If virtual photons are used to explain the electric and magnetic force, how do electrons 'know' which direction to fire the photon? - In answer to question 1 there was pointed the cause of gravitation - action of fluxes of gravitons, in accordance with the Le Sage's theory of gravitation. Just in the same way electric and magnetic forces can be explained, by fluxes of very small charged particles in the composition of fluxes gravitons. See Fedosin S.G. Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. (§ 19). Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0.
6) If an electron is a fundamental particle and absorbs a photon, is it still a fundamental particle? Should it not be more than fundamental while it's storing a photon? - In the book Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. (§ 14). Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0 the structure of electron is described, its spin is explained. The electron in atom is a cloud in form of disc rotating around the nucleus. The photon can rotate the electron disc and pass to it angular momentum and energy, and electron pass to another energy state. The elementarity of electron do not change in this situation.
7) What is the mechanism that ensures that electrons stay in their proper orbits? - The mechanism of it is the equality of fluxes of mechanical and fields energy in the substance of electron disc. See Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. (§ 14). Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0.
8) How is it possible for point particles (i.e. quarks and electrons) to have spin or angular momentum? - The electron is not a point particle. Quarks are not autonomic particles, they are quasiparticles or parts of substance of hadrons, from their core or their shell respectively. See the model of quark quasiparticles in the Fizicheskie teorii i beskonechnaia vlozhennost' materii. (§ 12). Perm, 2009, 844 pages, ISBN 978-5-9901951-1-0.
9) What is the purpose of antimatter? And why does matter and antimatter annihilate each other on contact? - From the model of quark quasiparticles and substantial model of proton and substantial model of neutron: in the center of neutron is positive charge, in the shell is negative charge; the proton has positive charge. In antiproton all the charge is negative. The substance of nucleons is hold by strong gravitation . In annihilation the sharges of particles and antiparticles disappear, and electromagnetic energy and energy of strong gravitation and rotation of particles gives energy loss by photons and formation of some pions. For electron and positron annihilation the main is electromagnetic energy so the photons are appeared.
10) What happened to all the antimatter moments after the big bang? - I do not believe in the big bang.
11) How does matter couple to and curve space-time? Do particles have little hooks that pull on the surrounding space to distort it? - The space-time is not really curved. It is simply the result of our procedure of space-time measurements with the help of electromagnetic waves. The problem is that nonisotropic fluxes of gravitons changed the motion of electromagnetic waves in space. The result is curving of light trajectories and change the speed of light near the massive bodies. According to modernized Le Sage's theory of gravitation near the massive bodies are the largest changes of energy of fluxes of gravitons (largest gradients of field potential) and so the largest effective curving of space-time.